viernes, 21 de julio de 2017

HOLY PLACES




Golgotha is the name the Gospels give to the place where Jesus was executed. The Aramaic term ‘Golgotha’ or the Greek one ‘Kránion’ (skull) refer to the same place. The term Calvary comes from the Latin root ‘calva’ which equally comes from the Greek term. This place is located in the interior of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, among architectural structures and under the remains of an old Roman temple which was built after the destruction of Jerusalem (130 AD) and its transformation into Aelia Capitolina by Hadrian. The church is managed by three Christian communities: the Roman Catholic, the Greek Orthodox and the Armenian Orthodox communities. The Calvary would be a flat rock, round at the top, 20 feet high and 23 feet long. The Chapel of the Crucifixion is built on this rock. It can be found a cavity known as the Cave of Adam under the chapel. The east part of the Calvary faces to Jerusalem and the west one is a slope that faces to the sepulchre, which is excavated in the rock 42 yards away.

Saint Helena of Constantinople -Emperor Constantine the Great’s mother- travelled to Jerusalem in 326 AD. She identified the place of the crucifixion, the grave (‘anastasis’/resurrection) and unearthed the Cross (discovery) and other Christ’s relics. Those places were located under the Temple of Venus, inside the third northern wall of Jerusalem which was built by Herod Agrippa (41-44 AD). However, those locations were outside the second wall, which marked the borders of the city in the first century. These facts were recorded by the historian Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea (Palestine).



Front of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)


Bulgarian Orthodox icon of Constantine and Saint Helena


The Calvary was in a former quarry located outside the second wall, which marked the borders of Jerusalem in the first century. The Sepulchre was a few feet away. The water well was before the Sepulchre and it is the place where Saint Helena found the True Cross and other relics.


Cross section of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem) and locations of the Holy Places

Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre: funerary chamber

Demolished slope for the construction of the temple in the 4th century

Sepulchre: burial chamber

Calvary rock

Cave of Adam


Map of the Chapel of Adam

Cracked rock


Map of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

A. Atrium
B. Unction Stone
C. Holy Sepulchre
D. Chapel of the Apparition
E. Chapel of Saint Helena
F. Discovery of the Cross
G. Golgotha
H. Choir of the Greeks

1. Chapel of Saint James
2. Chapel of Saint John
3. Chapel of the 40 Martyrs
4. Convent of Saint Abraham
5. Chapel of Saint John
6. Chapel of Saint Michael
8. Bell tower
9. Chapel of the Franks
10. Chapel of Saint Mary of Egypt
11. Turkish boardroom
12. Rock of the Saint Women
13. Chapel of the Angel
14. Sepulchre of Christ
15. Chapel of the Copts
16. Chapel of the Syrians
17. Grave of Joseph of Arimathea
18. Passage
19. Water well
20. Chapel of Magdalene
21. Monastery of Franciscans
22. Vestry
23. Virgin’s arches
24. Prison of Christ
25. Ambulatory
26. Chapel of Saint Longinus
27. Chapel of the Dresses God
28. Chapel of the insults
29. Chapel of Adam
30. Choir of the Franciscans

Possessions of

Greeks
Latin people
Armenians
Syrians
Copts
Commons
Latin people’s procession


Map of the Calvary in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Florentino Díez Fernández.


Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem): Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre


Chapel of Adam


Altar of the Chapel of the Crucifixion (Calvary)

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